LETS DIVE DEEP INTO MISSION CHANDRAYAAN-2

Er. Shobhit Gupta 25-07-2019 144
Chandrayaan-2 latest news
Chandayaan-2 is an Indian lunar exploration mission that will boldly go where no country has ever gone before - the Moon's south polar region. ISRO aims to improve their understanding of the Moon, which would lead to discoveries that will benefit India and the whole of humanity. These insights and experiences will cause a paradigm shift in how lunar expeditions are approached for years to come propelling further voyages into the farthest frontiers.

Chandrayaan-2 will be aided in achieving its mission by India's most advanced engineering marvels.

It's an integrated module, which comprises of technology and software developed across the country, includes ISRO's most powerful launch vehicle to date and a wholly indigenous rover.

WHY CHANDRAYAAN-2 IS GOING TO THE MOON? 

The Moon is the closest cosmic body on which space discovery can be attempted and documented. It is also a promising testbed to demonstrate the technologies required for deep-space missions.

Mission Chandrayaan-2 attempts to foster a new age of discovery, increase our understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists. The main objective of mission Chandrayaan-2 is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface and operate a robotic rover on the surface of the moon. It will go to the Moon's south polar region or we can say the dark side of the Moon

SOME OF THE ADVANCEMENTS ON THE SPACECRAFT INCLUDE:

ORBITER: At the time of launch, the Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter will be capable of communicating with Indian Deep Space Network (ISDN) at Byalalu as well as the Vikram lander. The Mission life of the Orbiter is one year it will be placed in a 100 X 100 km polar orbit. The weight of Orbiter is 2,379 kg and the Electric Power Generation capability of Orbiter is 1,000 watts. 
LANDER-VIKRAM: The Lander of Chandrayaan-2 is named Vikram after Dr. Vikram A Sarabhai, father of the Indian Space Programme. It is designed to function for one Lunar day, which is equivalent to about 14 earth days. Vikram has the Capability to communicate with ISDN at Byalalu near Bangalore, as well as with the Orbiter and Rover. The Lander is designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface. The weight of Lander-Vikram is 1,471 kg and the Electric  Power Generation capability is 650 watts.
ROVER-PRAGYAN:  Chandrayaan-2 Rover is a 6 wheeled robotic vehicle named Pragyan. Which translates to 'wisdom' in Sanskrit. It can travel up to 500 m (1/2-a-km)and leverages solar energy for its functioning. It can only communicate with the Lander. The weight of Rover-Pragyan is 27 kg and the Electric  Power Generation capability is 50 watts.

CHANDRAYAAN-2 COMPLETE PROJECT PAYLOADS

ORBITER PAYLOADS:

TERRAIN MAPPING CAMERA 2 (TMC 2): TMC 2 is a miniature version of the camera used onboard the Chandrayaan-1 mission. Its main objective is mapping the lunar surface in the panchromatic spectral band (0.5-0.8 microns) with a high spatial resolution of 5m and a swath of 20 km lunar polar orbit. The data collected by TMC 2 will give us clues about the Moon's evolution and help us to prepare 3D maps of the lunar surface.  
CHANDRYAAN-2 LARGE AREA SOFT X-RAY SPECTROMETER (CLASS): CLASS measures the Moon's X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectra to examine the presence of major elements such as Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon, Calcium, Titanium, Silicon, Calcium Titanium, Iron and Sodium. The XRF technique will detect these elements by measuring the characteristic X-rays they emit when excited by the Sun's rays.
SOLAR X-RAY MONITOR (XSM): It observes the X-rays emitted by the sun and its corona, measures the intensity of solar radiation in these rays, and supports CLASS. The primary objective of this payload is to provide solar X-ray spectrum in the energy range of 1-15 keV. XSM will provide high-energy resolution and high-cadence measurements (full spectrum every second) of solar X-ray spectra as input for analysis of data from CLASS.
ORBITER HIGH-RESOLUTION CAMERA (OHRC): This provides high-resolution images of the landing site ensuring the Lander's safe touchdown by detecting any craters or boulders prior to separation. The images it captures taken from two different look angles, severe dual purposes. Firstly, they are used to generate DEM's (Digital Elevation Models) of the landing site. Secondly, they are used for scientific research, postlander separation. OHRC's images will be captured over course of two orbits, covering an area of 12 km X 3 km with a ground resolution of 0.32 m. 
IMAGING IR SPECTROMETER (IIRS): This has the following primary objectives:
- Global mineralogical and volatile mapping of the Moon in the spectral range of ~0.8-5.0 µm for the first time, at the high resolution of ~20 nm
- Complete characterization of water/hydroxyl feature near 3.0 µm for the first time at high spatial (~80 m) and spectral (~20 nm) resolutions
- Global mineralogical and volatile mapping of the Moon in the spectral range of ~0.8-5.0 µm for the first time, at the high resolution of ~20 nm
DUAL FREQUENCY SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR: The dual-frequency (L and S) SAR will provide enhanced capabilities compared to Chandrayaan 1's  S-band miniSAR in areas such as:
- L-band for greater depth of penetration (About 5m twice that of S-band)
- Circular and full polarimetry  with a range of resolution options (2-75 m) and incident angles (9°-35°)  for understanding scattering properties of permanently shadowed regions
The main scientific objectives of this payload are:
- High-resolution lunar mapping in the polar regions
- Quantitative estimation of water-ice in the polar regions
- Estimation of regolith thickness and its distribution
CHANDRAYAAN-2 ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITIONAL EXPLORER 2 (CHACE 2): CHACE 2 will continue CHACE experiment carried out by Chandrayaan-1. It is a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMA) capable of scanning the lunar neutral exosphere in the mass range of 1 to 300 amu with the mass resolution of 0.5 amu. CHACE 2's primary objective is to carry out an in-situ study of the composition and distribution of the lunar neutral exosphere and its variability.
DUAL FREQUENCY RADIO SCIENCE (DFRS) EXPERIMENT: To study the temporal evolution of electron density in the Lunar ionosphere. Two coherent signals at X (8496 MHz) and S (2240 MHz) band are transmitted simultaneously from satellite and received at ground-based deep station network receivers.

VIKRAM PAYLOADS

  • RADIO ANATOMY OF MOON BOUND HYPERSENSITIVE IONOSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE (RAMBA): The lunar ionosphere is highly dynamic plasma environment. Langmuir probes, such as RAMBA, have proven to be a diagnostic tool to gain information in such conditions. Its primary objective is to measure factors such as:
  • - Ambient electron density/temperature near the lunar surface.
  • - Temporal evolution of lunar plasma density for the first time near the surface under varying solar conditions.
  • CHANDRA'S SURFACE THERMO-PHYSICAL EXPERIMENT (ChaSTE): This measures the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. It consists of a thermal probe (sensors and a heater) that is inserted into the lunar regolith down to a depth of 10 cm. ChaSTE operates in two modes:
  • - Passive mode operation in which continuous in-situ measurements of temperature at different depths are carried out.
  • - Active mode operation in which temperature variations in a set period of time, and the regolith's thermal conductivity under contact, are estimated. 
  • INSTRUMENT FOR LUNAR SEISMIC ACTIVITY (ILSA): This is a triple-axis, MEMS-based seismometer that can detect minute ground displacement, velocity, or acceleration caused by lunar quakes. Its primary objective is to characterize the seismicity around the landing site. ILSA has been designed to identify acceleration as low as 100ng/√Hz with a dynamic range of ±0.5 g and a bandwidth of 40 Hz. The dynamic range is met by using two sensors a coarse-range sensor and a fine-range sensor.

PRAGYAN PAYLOADS

  • ALPHA PARTICLE X-RAY SPECTROMETER (APXS): Its primary objective is to determine the elemental composition of the Moon's surface near the landing site. It achieves this through X-ray or alpha particles are used to excite the surface. APXS uses radioactive Curium (244) metal that emits high-energy, alpha particles as well as X-ray emission spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Through these techniques, APXS can deflect all major rock-forming elements such as Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Silica, Calcium, Titanium, Iron and some trace elements such as Strontium, Yttrium, and Zirconium. 
  • LUNAR INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPE (LIBS): Its main objective is to identify and determine the abundance of elements near the landing site. It does this by firing high-powered laser pulses at various locations and analyzing the radiation emitted by the decaying plasma.

PASSIVE EXPERIMENT

LASER RETROFLECTOR ARRAY(LRA): To understand the dynamics of Earth's Moon system and also derive clues on the Lunar interior.

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